以下原文。 There is no definitive formulation of the problem: When the problem is initially set, the goals are usually vague, and many constraints and criteria are unkhown. The problem context is often complex and messy, and poorly understood. In the course of problem-solving, temporary formulations of the problem may be fixed, but these are unstable and can change as more information becomes available.
Any problem formulation may embody inconsistencies: The problem is unlikely to be internally consistent; many conflicts and inconsistencies have to be resolved in the solution. Often, inconsistencies emerge only in the process of problem-solving.
Formulations of the problem are solution-dependent: Ways of formulating the problem are dependent upon ways of solving it; it is difficult to formulate a problem statement without implicitly or explicitly referring to a solution concept. The way the solution is conceived influences the way the problem is conceived.
Proposing solutions is a means of understanding the problem: Many assumptions about the problem, and specific areas of uncertainty can be exposed only by proposing solution concepts. Many constraints and criteria emerge as a result of evaluating solution proposals.
There is no difinitive solution to the problem: Different solutions can be equally valid responses to the initial problem. There is no objective true-or-false evaluation of a solution; but solutions are assessed as good or bad, appropriate or inappropriate.